HT 2001 workshops are intended to provide specialised forums for highly interactive discussion on focused topics.

W1: 7th International Workshop on Open Hypermedia Systems (OHS7)

Sigi Reich is the head of SunTREC Salzburg (Sun Technology and Research Excellence Center). He has participated in the Open Hypermedia Workshops and Working Group meetings since 1996. Over the last years Sigi Reich has been involved in aspects of interoperability of Open Hypermedia Systems, in particular the development of the Open Hypermedia Navigational Interface (OHP-Nav). He holds a Ph.D. in Applied Computer Science from the University of Vienna.
One full day
Contact information
Sigi Reich
Salzburg Research / SunTREC
Jakob Haringer Strasse 5/III
phone ++43 662 2288 461
fax ++43 662 2288 222
Official workshop Web page
Intended audience

The workshop is a systems workshop. Hence, both researchers and practitioners working with middleware for hypermedia and Web based systems are the main target audience. Participation requires submission of a workshop paper.

Accepted papers will be published as Post-workshop Proceedings in Springer's LNCS Series. Papers should be 7 to 10 pages A4 in length and should be formatted according to Springer's LNCS guidelines.

June 5, 2001 Position papers due
June 29, 2001 Notification of acceptance
August 14-18, 2001 Workshop date
September, 2001 Final version

OHS7 will be open to all aspects relevant to open hypermedia systems. Suggested topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Interoperation and standardisation issues in OHS, including architectural issues, protocols, naming, transformation, etc.
  • Semantic Web including topic maps, meta data, ontologies, etc.
  • Document models and hypertext
  • Media aspects of OHSs such as synchronisation of contents and link data, streaming of links, etc.
  • OHS issues and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)
  • Application scenarios, experiences, hypertext domains, and requirements for OHSs
  • Open Hypermedia on the Web
  • Presentation aspects including personalisation, context awareness, etc.

Over the past few years the Open Hypermedia Systems Working Group (OHSWG) has promoted research towards interoperability of Open Hypermedia Systems. The current trend towards increasingly open, component-based hypermedia systems clearly demonstrates the community's interest in this field and can therefore serve as an indication of its importance and relevance. Also, the W3C's initiative towards a Semantic Web demonstrates the relevance of this workshop.

OHS7 follows a series of workshops and working group meetings starting with OHS1 (the 1st OHS Workshop held at ECHT '94 Edinburgh, Scotland, September 1994), OHS2 (the 2nd OHS Workshop held at Hypertext '96 Washington, D.C., March 1996), OHS3 (the 3rd OHS Workshop held at Hypertext '97 in sunny Southampton, UK, April 1997), OHS4 (the 4th OHS Workshop held at Hypertext '98 in Pittsburgh, PA, June 1998), OHS5 (the 5th Workshop held at Hypertext '99 in Darmstadt, Germany, February 1999) and last years OHS6 (the 6th Workshop held at Hypertext '00 in San Antonio, TX, June 2000).

The OHS community has established itself as a very active part of the hypermedia research community. In March 1996, members of the OHS community formed the Open Hypermedia Systems Working Group (OHSWG). Since then, the OHSWG has been pursuing the difficult and rewarding task of addressing interoperability amongst Open Hypermedia Systems. Proposals for reference architectures, protocols for Open Hypermedia Systems, application scenarios, the distinction between different hypertext application domains, issues of OHS and Web integration, and many more contributions from both researchers and practitioners build the repertoire of subjects that have been addressed at previous workshops.

The workshop is to be organised by splitting it into sessions. Sessions will consist of brief position statements and discussions. A closing session will summarise the outcome of the workshop and determine any further activities to be performed. Furthermore, it is planned to briefly report on the outcome to the OHSWG group and to all interested hypertext researchers via a summary statement in the SIGWeb newsletter.
Expected outcome

The expected outcome of the workshop is to highlight new research directions for OHS middleware, to understand the relationship between middleware and backend infrastructure, and to gather requirements and issues raised by practitioners dealing with front-end applications.

Following on from last year, it is planned to publish Post-Workshop proceedings in the Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) series published by Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. These Proceedings will also include the papers of the 3rd International Workshop on Structural Computing 3 (SC3), which will be organised by Manolis Tsagarikis, and the 3rd Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia (AH3), which will be organised by Paul de Bra.

W2: 3rd Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia

Program Committee
  • Paul De Bra, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands
  • Peter Brusilovsky, University of Pittsburgh, USA
  • Alfred Kobsa, University of California at Irvine, USA
  • Liliana Ardissono, University of Torino, Italy
  • Licia Calvi, Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands
  • Wendy Hall, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
  • Lynda Hardman, Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica, the Netherlands
  • Paul Maglio, IBM Almaden Research Center, USA
  • Barry Smyth, University College Dublin, Ireland
  • Marcus Specht, GMD, Germany
  • Carlo Strapparava, IRST Trento, Italy

Workshop with two sessions: at the

  • The Eighth International Conference on User Modeling UM2001, Sonthofen, Germany, July 13-17, 2001 (half day)
  • Twelfth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia Hypertext'01, Aarhus, Denmark, August 14-18, 2001 (full day)
Contact information
Paul De Bra
Department of Computing Science
Eindhoven University of Technology
PO Box 513, NL 5600 MB Eindhoven
The Netherlands
Phone +31 40 2472733
Fax +31 40 2463992
Official workshop Web page
March 8, 2001: Submission deadline for the UM session (full papers, position statements, demos and posters).
April 1, 2001: Notification of acceptance, UM session.
May 1, 2001: Submission deadline for full papers, HT session.
May 31, 2001: Notification of acceptance for full papers, HT session.
June 10, 2001: Submission deadline for position statements, posters and demos, HT session.
June 20, 2001: Notification of acceptance for position statements, posters and demos, HT session.
July 13, 2001: Workshop session at the UM2001 conference.
August 15, 2001: Workshop session at the HT'01 conference.

Adaptive hypermedia includes a wide variety of research topics. The list of topics is by no means intended to be an exhaustive list for the workshop. It is only indicative of different aspects of this research area:

  • adaptive hypermedia systems and techniques
  • adaptive hypermedia on the Web
  • adaptive educational hypermedia systems
  • user modeling and adaptation in E-commerce
  • adaptive Web-based collaborative systems
  • adaptive information retrieval and filtering systems
  • making Web sites adaptive
  • Web (log) data mining for adaptivity
  • adaptive Web agents or assistants
  • user modeling and adaptation using XML
  • usability aspects of adaptive hypermedia
  • user model/profile Web servers
  • dealing with changing interests and preferences of users

In an increasing number of application areas, including but not limited to education, e-business, culture, tourism and news, the need for automated personalization is being acknowledged. The navigational freedom in conventional hypermedia leads to comprehension and orientation problems. As a result, users are not finding the information they need. Starting in the early 1990's, several research teams began to investigate ways of modeling features of individual users and groups of users to create hypermedia systems for a variety of information systems applications that would adapt to these different features. This has led to a number of interesting adaptation techniques and adaptive hypermedia systems, both Web-based and not Web-based. Adaptation is done both to the information content and to the link structure.

Adaptive hypermedia is a direction of research on the crossroads of hypertext (hypermedia) and user modeling, with an overall goal of improving the usability of hypermedia. Adaptive hypermedia has been the topic of a number of workshops, some emphasizing the hypermedia aspects, and some emphasizing the user modeling aspects. These workshops include, in chronological order:

  • Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia, held in conjunction with the Fourth International Conference on User Modeling (UM'94);
  • Workshop on User Modeling for Information Filtering on the World Wide Web, held in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on User Modeling (UM'96);
  • Flexible Hypertext Workshop, held at the Eighth ACM International Hypertext Conference (Hypertext'97) ;
  • Intelligent educational systems on the World-Wide Web, held in conjunction with the 8th World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AI-ED'97);
  • Workshop on Adaptive Systems and User Modeling on the World Wide Web, held in conjunction with the Sixth International Conference on User Modeling (UM'97);
  • Second Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia, held in conjunction with the Ninth AM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (Hypertext'98);
  • Second Workshop on Adaptive Systems and User Modeling on the World Wide Web (ASUM99), held in conjunction with the Eight International World Wide Web Conference and the Seventh International Conference on User Modeling.

The expanding research area of adaptive hypermedia has also led to the start of a series of International Conferences on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-based Systems. The first conference was held in Trento, Italy, in August 2000. Proceedings are available from Springer (LNCS1892). The second conference will be held in the summer of 2002, at a location that is still to be decided. In the meantime, researchers in the field of Adaptive Hypermedia are continuing to invent, study and evaluate new adaptive hypermedia techniques and applications. The Third Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia provides a forum for these researchers to present and discuss their work, and to identify topics and areas for possible collaboration.


Because the adaptive hypermedia research community has roots in the fields of user modeling and of hypermedia, this workshop will consist of two sessions: one at the User Modeling conference and one at the ACM Hypertext conference. Both sessions together form a single workshop, with a single program committee and proceedings. Experience with the ASUM99 workshop has shown that this leads to an interesting mix of participants and ideas.

The workshop will run for one half day before the User Modeling conference and one full day before the Hypertext'01 conference. The number of attendees for both sessions will be limited to 20-25 in order to encourage participation in workshop discussions. Participation will be on the basis of submitted full papers, position papers, posters or demos, or by invitation. The workshop will include a limited number of paper presentations, posters and demos and general group discussions. Group discussions will focus on the issues raised in the position papers, as well as on some focus questions. An informal workshop dinner will also be organized to encourage discussion and preparation of possible future collaboration.

The program will include:

  • Welcome and Introduction
  • Paper Sessions (2 at UM2001, 3 or 4 at HT'01) consisting of:
    • 1 to 2 Paper Presentations (15-30 minutes), and
    • Group Discussion on the Issues Raised (30 minutes)
  • Panel discussion on topics raised in position papers.
  • Conclusions and Wrap-up
  • Workshop Dinner
Expected outcome

The proceedings will be compiled into a technical report (a Compiting Science Report of the Eindhoven University of Technology) after the workshop. They will also be published on the Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia Homepage.

W3: 3rd International Workshop on Structural Computing (SC3)


Manolis Tzagarakis is Managing Director of the Research Unit II (RU2) of the Computer Technology Institute. He holds a degree in Engineering from the Computer Engineering & Informatics department, University of Patras, Greece. He has participated in the previous two workshops on structural computing in which he presented design issues of a prototype Component-Based Open Hypermedia System currently under development following the philosophy of structural computing.

One full day
Contact information
Manolis M. Tzagarakis
Computer Technology Institute (CTI)
Research Unit II
61 Riga Feraiou Str.
GR-262 21 Patras
Phone: +30 61 960381
Fax: +30 61 997783
Official workshop Web page
Intended audience

There are no restrictions regarding the background of the participants. Thus, both researchers and practitioners will be welcome.

June 11, 2001 Position papers due
June 29, 2001 Notification of acceptance
August 14-18, 2001 Workshop date
September, 2001 Final version

SC3 will be open to all aspects relevant to structural computing. Suggested topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • New hypermedia domains.
  • Domain requirements for structural computing.
  • Theoretical foundations of structural computing.
  • Structural computing prototypes (e.g. prototype "structure servers").
  • Tools and methodologies for the creation of CB-OHS.
  • Hypermedia infrastructure (e.g. generic hypermedia models and middleware services).
  • Inter-domain interoperability.
  • Structural computing as a school of thought (e.g. Structuralism).

Hypermedia concerns structure. The conceptual foundations of Open Hypermedia - its underlying structures and behaviors - have all focused on supporting one task: information navigation. However, these abstractions cannot address issues in new domains (e.g. spatial and taxonomic hypermedia ) in a convinient and efficient way. Structural computing asserts the primacy of structure over data shaping the theoretical and practical foundations upon which applications in new hypermedia domains can be developed. In achieving such a framework, Peter Nürnberg's paper "As We Should Have Thought", presented at the Hypertext 97 conference argued, that structure-oriented models as well as services that can be build on top of it should be the primary research focus of the open hypermedia community. Structural computing attempts to change the way the invisible but important infrastructure of contemporary Open Hypermedia Systems (OHS) work in providing open structure-based services in heterogeneous environments. The current move of the hypermedia community in producing Component-Based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHS) is providing the vehicle for structural computing to become increasingly important and relevant to the hypermedia community in general.

SC3 is the third workshop of this series. The previous two workshops have been SC1, held in conjunction with the ACM Hypertext 99 Conference in Darmstadt organized by Peter Nürnberg and SC2, held in conjunction with the ACM Hypertext 2000 Conference in San Antonio organized by Kenneth Anderson.


Like the previous two workshops, SC3 will also focus on requirements gathering from different hypermedia domains. Moreover, tools and techniques that have been developed to enable structural computing will be presented and evaluated. These tools will be evaluated against the requirements presented in the previous two workshops. In addition, SC3 will attempt to approach structural computing not only as a technological solution but also as a philosophical school of thought as pointed out in SC2.

Expected outcome

The expected outcomes of this workshop include advancing the knowledge of requirements for structural computing, bridging the gap between hypermedia domain and system researchers, identifying and evaluating techniques currently in use as well as highlighting new research directions.

Following on from last year, it is planned to publish Post-Workshop proceedings in the Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) series published by Springer Verlag. The proceedings will include the papers of the 7th International Workshop on Open Hypermedia Systems (OHS7), which will be organised by Siegfried Reich, and the 3rd Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia (AH3), which will be organised by Paul de Bra.

W4: Zigzag: Introduction and State of the Art


Dr LA Carr, Lecturer, University of Southampton, UK. This workshop will be organised by Dr Carr on behalf of Ted Nelson. Dr Carr obtained his PhD in 1994 and has published widely on open hypertext systems, structured information and digital libraries.

Key participants (and presenters) are

  • Ted Nelson: designer of Zigzag and Xanadu.
  • Andrew Pam: developer of initial Zigzag implementation
  • Tuomas Lukka: developer of current Zigzag implementation.
One full day
Contact information
Dr. Leslie Carr
Department of Electronics & Computer Science,
University of Southampton
Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ
Telephone: (023) 8059 4479
FAX: (023) 8059 2865
Intended audience
Those who are developers and users of the various Zigzag implementations as well as those who have a current interest in the ZigZag hypertext paradigm. The workshop will have a large show-and-tell element to it, and so aims to attract those with no Zigzag experience but who are curious as to the post-Xanadu work that Ted Nelson has been pursuing.

Zigzag is a novel hypertext system which embodies ideas about information representation, processing and access. Those who have been engaged in development work have largely been outside the ACM conference community. Running a workshop at the HT conference is aimed at helping to integrate several streams of hypertext work.

What is ZigZag About?

Cross-viewable multidimensional lists

  • provide an unusual paradigm for information structures, with interesting new designs and models for input, viewing, interaction, data structures and programming.

These include

  • a paradoxical space with surprising new geometrical properties;
  • a default visualization method that works even in tiny windows;
  • a default interface that works even on phone keypads and game handles;
  • a generalization of lists and tables to N dimensions, providing new forms of database, inheritance, file management, simplified graphical programming, and other useful computer concepts; high and easy extensibility with unusually few collisions; and
  • an enactment engine - a spatial interpreter - for new kinds of programming.

Most importantly, multiple dimensions yield surprising simplifications. These structures appear to streamline many aspects of data and programming, for several reasons

  • everything may be visualized and manipulated uniformly at the lowest level;
  • special cases may always be mapped to the same primitives;
  • the built-in connection primitives provide pathways that render many customary constructs unnecessary;
  • elements may be referenced in many contexts with no need to spawn or maintain redundant copies or structures.

Naturally, this has a number of applications for hypertext and hypermedia. It also offers its own new and engrossing set of problems.

Projects based on this model are underway in Japan, Australia, Finland and the U.K.

Tutorial information on ZigZag can be found at


Current developments and applications of Zigzag. Future of Zigzag work: standardisation and issues.

The workshop will consist of a set of invited presentations and group discussions. A tentative list of presentations has been drawn up

  • Intro to ZigZag - Ted Nelson, Ed Harter, Marlene Mallicoat
  • The initial ZigZag implementation - Andrew Pam
  • The Gzigzag project at the hyperstructure lab, U. of Jyv”skyl” - Tuomas J. Lukka, Ekaterina Ervasti
  • Designs for ZigZag languages - Antti-Juhani Kaijanaho
  • Referential hypertext (the Xanadu model) with ZigZag - Ted Nelson, Tuomas J. Lukka, Benjamin Fallenstein, Andrew Pam
  • ZigZag and the Web - Les Carr
  • ZigZag for textual hyperstructures and personal use - Marlene Mallicoat
  • ZigZag standardization issues - Open Session
Expected outcome
The main aims of the workshop are to
  • to bring together the Zigzag development and user community
  • to focus on hypertext research and development agendas.
  • to provide an environment to form future collaborations.
  • to introduce more people to the ideas in the Zigzag system.

W5: Morphing Media - What's the Message?: 5th Hypertext Writers' Workshop at HT01

Deena Larsen is the primary organizer and contact. She has written an MA thesis on hypertext, articles on hypertext, and several hypertext fictions. She works as a facilitator and technical writer at the Bureau of Reclamation. She has organized the first four hypertext conferences, the ELO workshops, and CyberMountain and is co-organizing CyberFlats in conjunction with HT01.
Full day, with an informal 1 hour meeting at the end of the conference.
Intended audience

This workshop is deliberately informal - it is a breeding ground for ideas, collaboration, and new works. This dynamic fosters and supports new territories which participants explore throughout the year. Thus, audiences for these forays are broad and varied. Audiences include users for new systems, readers for new hypertext works, students in new classes, and activists for new media literature.


This workshop promotes an interdisciplinary, collaborative approach to bring hypertext researchers, developers, and writers together to explore new avenues of creativity and possibilities in these media.

The writers' workshops at the HT conferences have brought new participants and new dimensions each year. This year, the workshop will be held in conjunction with CyberFlats, a workshop for writers and systems developers. This five day session will provide working collaborations with changing technologies.

Hypertexts comprise a range of media, techniques, programs, and systems. Authors use these systems to explore, challenge, and play with reader expectations. Yet these systems have changed rapidly and will continue to change. Hypertext content and system developers need to continually explore the implications of changing media. The workshop will discuss ways hypertext writing has adapted to and taken advantage of these changes, and propose further explorations and changes.


The specific objectives of this workshop are to:

  • Develop strategies and approaches to hypertext writing, changing techniques and tools, and teaching hypertext
  • Promote and improve hyperliteracy and quality hypertext writing (both fiction and nonfiction)
  • Be informed about new projects and techniques
  • Examine hypertext writing, ask questions of the authors, and discuss important "invisible" aspects such as structure, decision-making, and technical details.

The three hour morning session will look at three hypertext works in progress to discuss changing techniques and strategies to determine how these techniques are being used and could be used in future hypertext literature.

The first two-hour afternoon session will be broken into three groups:

  • WRITE NOW: A hypertext writing exercise to explore ways to write hypertext and demonstrate the concepts and thought techniques involved.
  • CHANGING TOOLS: A strategy sharing session on using, learning, and developing new tools.
  • TEACHING HT: A strategy sharing session to list strategies, practices, and success stories on teaching hypertext, electronic literature, and other new media.

After the breakout, groups will come together to report on these strategies and results for an hour.

Participants will meet for an hour at the end of the conference to discuss what we have found throughout the conference and plan activities for the year.

Expected outcome

Writers learn new methods and new approaches, readers learn new facets of hypertext writing, system developers find new applications and approaches, and researchers find new avenues of research in literary criticism, teaching, systems development, and more.

Each year, this workshop has sparked new collaborations and ways hypertext writers can work together throughout the year, including the Electronic Literature Organization (resources, chats and workshops), Word Circuits - a web resource for writers, and CyberMountain, a focused, annual 4 day writers' workshop.

W6: Spatial Hypertext


Frank Shipman, Texas A&M University, is a senior hypertext researcher and one of the original authors on the VIKI project. He is currently the principal investigator on the VKB project, which is a successor to VIKI, and is supervising PhD research in spatial hypertext. He is the author or co-author of numerous important papers in spatial hypertext, one of which received the Engelbart best paper award at Hypertext 99.

Jim Rosenberg, Grindstone PA, is an independent poet and hypertext researcher who has been executing spatial hypertexts since 1988. He is the author of several papers of relevance to this area, two of which were nominated for the Engelbart best paper award at Hypertext 96 and 98.

One full day
Contact information
Frank M. Shipman, III
Center for the Study of Digital Libraries
Department of Computer Science
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas
Phone: 77843-3112
Intended audience
Spatial hypertext system implementers, hypertext framework integrators, users of spatial hypertexts, writers and researchers on hypertext rhetoric working in spatial hypertext, hypertext researchers generally interested in alternative models of structure, researchers in structural computing.
June 11, 2001 Position papers due
Spatial Hypertext has been an important hypertext research topic since its inception with the first well-known spatial hypertext system, VIKI, which appeared in 1994. Since that time a number of other spatial hypertext systems have appeared: Web Squirrel, CAOS, and VKB among others, and the spatial hypertext research is widely cited. The moment is opportune to bring together researchers in this field for a specific meeting on the subject of spatial hypertext.
Prospective attendees will be asked to submit a position paper. Each accepted position paper will be presented at the workshop. At least part of the session will be devoted to demos if there is interest among the participants.

Among the expected topics would be:

  • Spatial hypertext systems in progress
  • User experience with spatial hypertext
  • Spatial hypertext implementation issues
  • Integrating spatial hypertext with other hypertext frameworks and other software environments generally
  • Rhetoric issues posed by spatial hypertext Goals for the workshop include:
    • Surveying the state and
    • variety of research areas in spatial hypertext
  • Providing guidance to spatial hypertext system implementers from user experience
  • Surveying spatial hypertext for open questions and future research directions
  • Providing a framework for broadening the reach of spatial hypertext by integrating it with the software environment generally
Expected outcome
If the position papers seem to warrant it a technical report will be issued in lieu of a proceedings.
Last modified: Tuesday, 10-Jul-2001 18:05:41 CEST